AND CO-OPERATION IN EUROPE
to History: Classroom Activities)
on Security and Co-operation in Europe, which opened at Helsinki
on 3 July 1973 and continued at Geneva from 18 September 1973 to
21 July 1975, was concluded at Helsinki on 1 August 1975 by the
High Representatives of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus,
Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, the German Democratic
Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, the Holy See,
Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta,
Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San
Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, the United States of America
the political will, in the interest of peoples, to improve and intensify
their relations and to contribute in Europe to peace, security,
justice and cooperation as well as to rapprochement among themselves
and with the other States of the world,
in consequence, to give full effect to the results of the Conference
and to assure, among their States and throughout Europe, the benefits
deriving from those results and thus to broaden, deepen and make
continuing and lasting the process of détente,
The High Representatives
of the participating States have solemnly adopted the following:
on Principles Guiding Relations between Participating States
equality, respect for the rights inherent in sovereignty
States will respect each other's sovereign equality and individuality
as well as all the rights inherent in and encompassed by its sovereignty,
including in particular the right of every State to juridical equality,
to territorial integrity and to freedom and political independence.
They will also respect each other's right freely to choose and develop
its political, social, economic and cultural systems as well as
its right to determine its laws and regulations..
from the threat or use of force..
States regard as inviolable all one another's frontiers as well
as the frontiers of all States in Europe and therefore they will
refrain now and in the future from assaulting these frontiers..
integrity of States
States will respect the territorial integrity of each of the participating
they will refrain from any action inconsistent with the purposes
and principles of the Charter of the United Nations against the
territorial integrity, political independence or the unity of any
participating State, and in particular from any such action constituting
a threat or use of force..
settlement of disputes..
in internal affairs
States will refrain from any intervention, direct or indirect, individual
or collective, in the internal or external affairs falling within
the domestic jurisdiction of another participating State, regardless
of their mutual relations..
for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the freedom
of thought, conscience, religion or belief
States will respect human rights and fundamental freedoms, including
the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief, for all
without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.. In the
field of human rights and fundamental freedoms, the participating
States will act in conformity with the purposes and principles of
the Charter of the United Nations and with the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights..
rights and self-determination of peoples
States will respect the equal rights of peoples and their right
to self-determination..By virtue of the principle of equal rights
and self-determination of peoples, all peoples always have the right,
in full freedom, to determine, when and as they wish, their internal
and external political status, without external interference, and
to pursue as they wish their political, economic, social and cultural
in good faith of obligations under international law..